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    • Nigeria’s herdsmen problem
      Emerging grazing regulations have focused so far on banning the free access to feeding areas to nomadic herdsmen. Two states have enacted laws, while a third is on its way of issuing new regulation.  All other states and the federal government have not been active in seeking to regulate herdsmen activity and are witnessing a rise in violence. For the states that are moving forward with legislation, here are the steps taken so far: Last year, Governor Ayodele Fayose of Ekiti State made it criminal for herdsmen to move their cattle from one place to another and restricted them from taking their cattle to working farms for grazing, following a spate of murders of farmers who resisted herders. In Benue State, the executive and legislative branches established two complementary laws, they believed were tied to each other. On 22 May 2017, Benue signed into law the “Open Grazing Prohibition and Ranches Establishment Law, 2017” and the “Prohibition of Abduction, Hostage Taking, Kidnapping, Secret Cult, and Similar Activities Law.” Although problems continue to plague the state, there has been a noticeable in peace and security in the state. Before both laws came into effect, the state experienced severe cases of violent crimes in many communities. In Taraba, State Governor Darius Ishaku recently sponsored an executive bill to the State House of Assembly, titled “Anti-Open Grazing And Ranching Establishment Bill 2017.”  The bill is aimed at solving the incessant herdsmen/farmers’ clashes, as well as check the activities of cattle rustlers in the state. The bill has already passed second reading and the lawmakers will conduct public hearings in the three senatorial zones of the state. The governor also of recent summoned an emergency security meeting of leaders of the ethnic Tiv, Jukun, Kuteb and Miyeti Allah in Jalingo to establish procedures that would enhance security in the state. Indeed, Taraba has been marked with intense violence as a result of herdsmen attacks, kidnapping, and armed robbery. Herdsmen/farmers clashes have been all round the three senatorial zones of the state, particularly in the southern and central zones. Various Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), which visited areas most prone to herdsmen attacks, estimate that the attacks displaced some 43,000, while the cost of destroying villages, properties and farms is estimated at NGN 7 billion. The latest such attacks took place in Usah, Bali and Takum where scores of people were reported killed, houses burnt and thousands of farmers displaced after herdsmen attacks.  
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